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C Long, N Light
Department of Sports & Exercise Sciences, University of Chichester, England


Various exercises are prescribed in the management of adductor-related groin pain. Isometric adductor ball squeeze exercises are commonly incorporated into both prevention and rehabilitation training, as is the Copenhagen Adduction exercise, which offers a more dynamic and challenging alternative. The adductor longus (AL) muscle is commonly indicated in adductor pathology and may be considered a ‘target’ tissue, yet there is minimal literature examining adductor muscle activation during such exercises. Understanding variation in levels of AL activation during differing exercises, may inform exercise selection.

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The effect of repetitive ankle perturbations on muscle reaction time and muscle activity

Dr. Peter Kevin Thain PhD a,d,*, Dr. Gerwyn Trefor Gareth Hughes PhD b,
Dr. Andrew Charles Stephen Mitchell PhD c
a Faculty of Health, Education and Life Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
b Department of Kinesiology, University of San Francisco, CA, United States
c School of Sport Science & Physical Activity, University of Bedfordshire, Bedford, United Kingdom
d School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom


The use of a tilt platform to simulate a lateral ankle sprain and record muscle reaction time is a wellestablished procedure. However, a potential caveat is that repetitive ankle perturbation may cause a natural attenuation of the reflex latency and amplitude. This is an important area to investigate as many researchers examine the effect of an intervention on muscle reaction time. Muscle reaction time, peak and average amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain (combined inversion and plantar flexion movement) were calculated in twenty-two physically active participants. The 40 perturbations were divided into 4 even groups of 10 dominant limb perturbations. 

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The Multi-Functional Foot in Athletic Movement: Extraordinary Feats by Our Extraordinary Feet

Jennifer Wilson 1*, John Kiely 2 1 University of Derby, College of Life & Natural Sciences: Sport, Outdoor & Exercise Science, Derby, United Kingdom 2 University of Central Lancashire, Institute of Coaching & Performance, School of Sport, Tourism and the Outdoors,  Preston, Lancashire, United Kingdom

Article (PDF Available) in Human Movement 17(1):15-21 · June 2016


The unique architecture of the foot system provides a sensitive, multi-tensional method of communicating with the surrounding environment. Within the premise of the paper, we discuss three themes: complexity, degeneracy and bio-tensegrity. Complex structures within the foot allow the human movement system to negotiate strategies for dynamic movement during athletic endeavours. We discuss such complex structures with particular attention to properties of a bio-tensegrity system. Degeneracy within the foot structure offers a distinctive solution to the problems posed by differing terrains and uneven surfaces allowing lower extremity structures to overcome perturbation as and when it occurs. This extraordinary structure offers a significant contribution to bipedalism through presenting a robust base of support and as such, should be given more consideration when designing athletic development programmes.

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Psychosocial factors associated with outcomes of sports injury rehabilitation in competitive athlete: a mixed studies systematic review

Dale Forsdyke, Andy Smith, Michelle Jones, Adam Gledhill
Br J Sports Med bjsports-2015-094850 Published Online First: 17 February 2016 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094850

Correspondence to Dale Forsdyke, Applied Human Sciences Department, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, York St John University, Lord Mayors Walk, York YO31 7EX, UK;


Background The prime focus of research on sports injury has been on physical factors. This is despite our understanding that when an athlete sustains an injury it has psychosocial as well as physical impacts. Psychosocial factors have been suggested as prognostic influences on the outcomes of rehabilitation. The aim of this work was to address the question: are psychosocial factors associated with sports injury rehabilitation outcomes in competitive athletes?  Study design Mixed studies systematic review (PROSPERO reg.CRD42014008667).

Method Electronic database and bibliographic searching was undertaken from the earliest entry until 1 June 2015. Studies that included injured competitive athletes, psychosocial factors and a sports injury rehabilitation outcome were reviewed by the authors. A quality appraisal of the studies was undertaken to establish the risk of reporting bias

Results 25 studies were evaluated that included 942 injured competitive athletes were appraised and synthesised. Twenty studies had not been included in previous reviews. The mean methodological quality of the studies was 59% (moderate risk of reporting bias). Convergent thematic analysis uncovered three core themes across the studies: (1) emotion associated with rehabilitation outcomes; (2) cognitions associated with rehabilitation outcomes; and (3) behaviours associated with rehabilitation outcomes. Injury and performance-related fears, anxiety and confidence were associated with rehabilitation outcomes. There is gender-related, age-related and injury-related bias in the reviewed literature.

Conclusions Psychosocial factors were associated with a range of sports injury rehabilitation outcomes. Practitioners need to recognise that an injured athlete's thoughts, feelings and actions may influence the outcome of rehabilitation.

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Can Patellofemoral Joint (PFJ) Alignment Be Assessed Clinically Using a Custom Made Calliper?

Kevin D. Campbell-Karn 1, *Thomas Korff 2 Ian McDermott 2 (July 2015) Can Patellofemoral Joint (PFJ) Alignment Be Assessed Clinically Using a Custom Made Calliper? The 25th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, Glasgow 2015

1Faculty of Life Science and Computing, London Metropolitan University, London, 
2College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom


Introduction and Objectives: Knee problems are a common complaint among the general population with a high proportion of physical injuries being knee-related. Up to one in six knee-related conditions have been coded as a ‘patellofemoral condition’ which includes anterior knee pain. However, anterior knee pain can have several causes. One common cause is mal-alignment of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) and is considered as an abnormal static position of the patella within the trochlear groove during knee extension and flexion. This can cause undue stress to the joint and surrounding structures, with resultant damage and potential pathology. Mal-alignment of the PFJ causes patellar kinematic abnormalities predominantly in the last 20° of knee extension mainly due to the decreased congruency as the patella rises out of the trochlear groove in this range. Clinicians currently assess the alignment of the patella via measurement of the Q-angle, functional testing and the so-called McConnell technique. The latter was developed by McConnell and has been broadly adopted by the physiotherapy community when assessing and treating alignment of the patellofemoral joint. The goal of this method is to determine the centre of the patella in relation to the femoral epicondyles and is reliant on accurate localisation of the medial and lateral borders and the femoral epicondyles. Whilst the McConnell technique may be useful within a clinical context, this subjective measurement is reported to have limited reliability. It is clear therefore that there is a need for the position of the patella in relation to the femur to be determined more objectively and reliably. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the suitability and reliability of a custom-made ‘patellofemoral tracking calliper’ to assess the patellar position with respect to the femur.

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